Thursday, 25 December 2014

Arabic Articles, Definite and Indefinite

                                                                 بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمانِ الرَّحِيم

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على نبينا محمد وآله وصحبه

الدرس السابع

As-salam-alai-kum, can you guess the chapter number ?  Else please go back and count the chapters posted. Also memorise the numbers. It will help while we learn the arabic numerals insha-allah.

I got a WhatsApp message below:
An IS guy stopped a christian couple near border and asked ‘are you muslim’ ? christian guy got scared and said yes!.  IS guy asked him to tell any Quran ayah. The guy started reciting arabic bible. The IS guy allowed him to go. The girl asked her husband, why you lied to him. He said i took chance as many muslims don’t know quran as they don’t know arabic”.

The above incident may or may not be true.  But what is true is that many muslims indeed don’t know arabic. And every arabic is not quran.  Think over !! where you want to be ? Its never too late.  Just continue your studies insha-allah Allah (swt) will guide us.

Till now examples were from real life.  Try to translate below ayaats from quran as ultimately that should be our goal to learn arabic. Below are application of whatever we have studied before. If unable to translate then look in any translations.

أَنتُم مُّسْلِمُونَ - [2:132]
أَنتَ التَّوَّابُ - [2:128]
وَأَنتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ - [2:92]
هِيَ بَيْضَاءُ - [7:108]
ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَضْلُ الْكَبِيرُ - [42:22]
هَٰذَا حَلَالٌ وَهَٰذَا حَرَامٌ - [16:116]
هَٰذَا لِسَانٌ عَرَبِيٌّ - [16:103]
تِلْكَ الدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ - [28:83]
أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ - [8:74]
هَٰؤُلَاءِ ..قَلِيلُونَ - [26:54]

Some new words to learn from above examples. Some of them you might have guessed it. If not then just memorise it. after all new language means many new words into our head.

Definite and Indefinite:
In english by adding “The” to a noun, it becomes definite. i.e. “THE Quran”.
In arabic By adding (ال) al- to an indefinite noun, you make it definite.
Example:  indefinite (كِتابٌ) - (book) becomes (الكِتابُ). The book.   
Notice (بُ) instead ٌ) in the noun i.e Al-kitabu is correct and Al-kitabun is wrong.  Also the same goes for indefinite. Kitabun is correct and kitabu is wrong.

More examples:
The Book
The Quran
The Lesson
The Religion
The House

Solar Letters and Lunar Letters :
ألحُرُفُ الشَمسِييَّةُ أ'لحُرُفَ القَمَرِيَّةٌ

BTW, have you pronounced (ألدَّرسُ) as (AL-darasu) ? Wrong !!
When (ال) is defined to a noun beginning with a Solar Letter the (ل) of (ال) is assimilated to the Solar letter.
Example: (الشمسية) is pronounced (Ash-shamsu).  And not (AL -shamsu). Thats why we say Ar-rehman  and not  AL-rehman.
Therefore (ألدَّرسُ) is pronounced as (Ad-darasu)

No such assimilation takes place with Lunar letters.
Example: (القَمَرِيَّةٌ) is pronounced as (Al-qamaru).  And not (aq-qamaru)

Tip to find the solar letter :
In the articulation of Solar letters, the tip of the blade of the tongue is involved as in T, N, R, S, D.
Below arabic letters are all solar as the tips of tongue is involved. So you don’t pronounce (AL) if the noun is definite.
ت, ث, د, ذ, ر, ز, س, ش, ص, ض, ط, ظ, ل, ن
Example: اللَّحمُ (Meat), النَّجمُ (Star)

See how this simple grammar teaches us to read quran in correct way. The first thing that is thought in quran classes after arabic letters is understanding of solar letters and lunar letters. and pronouncing these words correctly. We just didn’t knew that we were learning solar and lunar letters. right!!

Elision of (ال)
When the word (ال) begins with a vowel, the ‘A’ of ‘Al’ is dropped and the sound is elided. In case of ‘This’.

الجَنَّةُ - The paradise.    when added with hadhihi it becomes
هَذِهِ الجَنَّةُ - “This is the paradise” pronounced as (Hadhihi-l-jannah)  and not (hadithi- AL- jannah).
Thats why we say  Bismillahir-rehmanir-rahim.  The (AL) is elided. We don’t say Bismillah - Ar`rehman - Ar`rahim.

More arabic words (كلام)
To learn more new words it is good to have mind map of related words. Example, when you think of a room (غرفة) you should think of many items in the room.Take a look at below picture of a غرفة and learn new words.

Just memorise the كلام in the picture, insha-allah the plurals of the above words (كلام) will be given at the end of this chapter.

Exercise:  try to look around items you see in your room (غرفة) everyday. Get their arabic كلام and memorise them.  Though this may not be helpful for learning quran but it does for basic arabic speaking at home.

Lets have some fun learning basic vocabulary by answering “yes” or “no” question format.
In arabic “yes” means “نعم” (na`aam)  and “no” means “لا” (La).  So from the below table just look at the word of picture and answer the questions asked with “نعم” / “لا”.

أهَـٰذَا كَلبٌ؟ - Is this a dog?
لا, هَـٰذَا قِطٌ - No, this is cat
أهَـٰذَا بَيتٌ؟ - Is this a house?

أهَـٰذَا مِفتاحٌ؟ - Is this a key?

أهَـٰذَا قَمِيصٌ؟ - Is this shirt?

(هَل) also can be used to question (Is this/that).  and also (أ)

هَل هَـٰذَا نَهرٌ؟ - Is this river?

هَل ذَلِكَ سَرِيرُ؟ - Is that a bed?

Now finally the list of the words we saw in the picture.  Try to translate them in english.
(Note:  generally arabic writing omits dhamma ,fatha, etc. (i.e. ـــَ   ـــِ  ـــُ). So you have to familiarise the words without them.

نجم  - نجوم
كرسي  -  كراسي
طاولة   - طاولات
القلم   -  الأقلام
خزانة - خزانات
باب  -  الأبواب
مفتاح - مفاتيح
نافذة   - النوافذ
الكتاب - الكتب

Alhamdulillah we learnt in this chapter -
  1. Arabic definite and indefinite nouns.  example (Al-kitabu  and kitabun)
  2. Solar and lunar letters.   ex. (Ar-rehman.  and Al-qamar)
  3. Elision of (AL).  ex. (Bismillahi-rehamn)
  4. new words related to a room. (غرفة)
  5. Yes / no . “نعم” / “لا”

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