Tuesday, 3 March 2015

Arabic Verbs + Joined pronouns

                                                                 بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمانِ الرَّحِيم

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على نبينا محمد وآله وصحبه

الدرس الحادي عشر

As-salam-alai-kum, i hope from previous chapter you have learned how to make simple sentences with past tense.    Lets see how to ask simple questions like “what you did”. A friend asking his friend about what he did

What did you eat ?
ماذا أكَلتَ
I ate food
 أكَلْتُ الطعام

Note on above example :Hope you remember that to tell “you ate” we have to add “ta” to akala  i.e.  “   تَ + اَكَلَ”  => “أكَلتَ” . Similarly “i ate”  is “أكَلْتُ”
Another word for “what” is [ ماذا ].   you can also use “ما” for asking questions.

When we say about food “الطعام” we think about breakfast (فُطور) , lunch (غَداء)  and dinner (عَشاء).  Can you translate below
  1. I ate dinner
  2. I ate lunch
  3. أكَلْتُ فطور.

More examples
A friend asking his friend about what he did.
Notice the verbs used in below examples.  Try to translate the below sentences with tips given.

drink = شَرِبَ
ماذا شَرِبْتَ ؟  
milk = اللَبنَ
شَرِبْتُ  اللَبنَ
read = قَرأ
ماذا قَراتَ ؟

قَراتُ الدّرس
with you = مَعَكَ
مَن قرأ مَعَكَ ؟
friend = صَدِيقِ
قرأ مَعَي صَدِيقِي
did ... ? = أَ
Understand = فَهِمَ
أَ فَهِمْتَ الدَّرَسْ

نَعم فَهِمتُ
Memorize = حَفِظَ ( also to protect )
هَلْ حَفِظْتَ الدّرَس

نَعم حَفِظْتُهُ الحمدلله   
after that =  بَعَدَ + هُ
مأذا فَعلْتَ بَعَدَهُ ؟
Go = ذَهَبَ , play = لَعِبَ ,
field = المَيدَان , Football = كُرَة القَدَمْ
ذَهَبْتُ إلى المَيدَان  و لَعِبْتُ كُرَة القَدَمْ

Verb + Joined pronoun = simple phrase.

Not sure if you have noticed [حَفِظْتُهُ] in above example.   Actually it is made up of a verb + a joined pronoun.    حَفِظَ + تُ  + هُ = حَفِظْتُهُ .  (to memorize + i + it = i memorized it).

That is the beauty of Arabic. ما شاء الله.  If you know one root word of verb for example (ضَرَبَ) to hit . You can make 14 phrases to refer to someone’s action as we have learned in previous chapter.  example..  

ضَرَبَ  , ضَرَبا , ضَرَبوا ......, ضَرَبَت ,ضَرَبَتَا , ضَرَبْنَ ......., ضَرَبتَ , ضَرَبْتُما, ضَرَبْتُم .... ضَرَبْتِ , ضَرَبْتُما , ضَرَبْتُنَّ , ...... ضَرَبْتُ  , ضَرَبْنا
.i.e.  He hit, They 2 hit, they hit,..... she hit, they 2 hit, they all hit (f), …...You hit, You 2 hit, You all hit ……. You hit (f), You 2 hit (f), you all hit (f) ……..I hit, we hit.

For each of the 14 words (phrases) above you can attach 14 joined pronouns to make 14x14 =196 phrases easily.
Lets combine  (ضَرَبَ) with all the joined pronouns to learn simple phrases with verbs. 
Do you remember the Arabic joined pronoun from 4th chapter ? 
Hu, huma, hum . . . . .  Ha, huma, hunna,  . . . . . . Ka, Kuma, Kum . . . . . Ki, Kuma, Kunna . . . . . . . ee  ,na.

 (He hit all of them) ضَرَبَهمُ
(He hit both of them) ضَرَبَهُما
   ضَرَبَهُ  ( He hit him)
(He hit all of them) ضَرَبَهُنّ
(He hit  both of them) ضَرَبَهُما
(He hit her) ضَرَبَها
(He hit all of you)  ضَرَبَكُم
(He hit both of you) ضَرَبَكُما
(He hit you ) ضَرَبَك  
(He hit all of you) ضَرَبَكُنّ
(He hit both of you) ضَرَبَكُما
(He hit you) ضَرَبَكِ

(He hit us) ضَرَبَنا
(He hit me) ضَرَبَني

This table is also very important. Try to memorize it. If possible with the verb (فَعَلَ)
This is not the only table. There are 13 more tables possible.  You can try populate all of them.  Like the one below.
Try to fill missing boxes. they are similar table like above but for “I beat” - (ضَرَبْتُ)

 (I hit all of them) ضَرَبْتُهمُ

   ضَرَبْتُهُ  ( I hit him)

(I hit  both of them) ضَرَبْتُهُما

(I hit you ) ضَرَبْتُكَ
(I hit all of you) ضَرَبْتُكُنّ

(I hit all of us) ضَرَبْتُنا

Using a dictionary

Its now time for you buy a good dictionary.  The most popular dictionary for learners is “A dictionary of Modern Arabic by Hans Wehr”.  Online version is available here. In this dictionary the Arabic word is put according to the order of root letters in a word.  For, example if you come across the word (ضَرَبْتُمْ) in Quran,
You look under root letters (ض ر ب). 

Below picture shows an example snippet from Hans Wehr for word (غ س ل).

Exercise 1:
 Go this page for online Hans Wehr. Click on the page to get a input box. Type “Drb” and click ok. It will take to you to page which contains (ض ر ب). And find out what its meaning.

Exercise 2:
 In Arabic (قَتَلَ) means “to Kill”.   Write the table with joined pronouns for phrase “She killed …”.

Exercise 3:
Translate below:
  1. I killed him
  2. They both hit me.
  3. قَتَلَتْهُما
  4. She hit all of them.
  5. ضَرَبْتُنا  
  6. He did it.

Exercise 4:
Below are the 2 ayahs from Quran (21:62-63) when Ibrahim (عليه سلم)  broke the idols. And the people noticed their idols are broken. Try to translate below

(21:62)They said:  أَأَنتَ فَعَلْتَ هَٰذَا بِآلِهَتِنَا يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ
(21:63)He said - بَلْ فَعَلَهُ كَبِيرُهُمْ هَٰذَا  . so ask them, if they should [be able to] speak.

Insha-allah we shall continue our study on verbs.

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