Tuesday, 24 March 2015

Arabic verb present tense and doer format of verb

                                                                 بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمانِ الرَّحِيم

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على نبينا محمد وآله وصحبه

الدرس الثاني عشر

Surah Al-Kafiroon.  (سورة الكافرون)

From the Maududi's translation of this surah.
According to Hadrat Abdullah bin Abbas, the Quraish proposed to the Holy Prophet (pbuh); "We shall give you so much of wealth that you will become the richest man of Makkah; we shall give you whichever woman you like in marriage; we are prepared to follow and obey you as our leader, only on the condition that you will not speak ill of our gods. If you do not agree to this, we present another proposal which is to your as well as to our advantage."When the Holy Prophet (pbuh) asked what it was, they said that if he would worship their gods, Lat and Uzza, for a year, they would worship his God for the same space of time. The Holy Prophet said: "Wait a while; let me see what my Lord commands in this regard."Thereupon the revelation came down: Qul ya-ayyuhal- kafirun... and: Qul afa-ghair Allahi... (Az-Zumar: 64): "Say to them: ignorant people do you bid me to worship others than Allah?" (Ibn Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatim, Tabarani). According to another tradition from Ibn Abbas, the Quraish said to the Holy Prophet: "O Muhammad, if you kiss our gods, the idols, we shall worship your God."Thereupon, this Surah was sent down. (Abd bin Humaid).

Insha-allah in this chapter, lets try to learn arabic grammar through the chapter Surah Al-kafiroon. Insha-allah you will get some relief that you will start to understand quranic chapters.

Sometimes  non-believers gets offended when we refer them as (كافِر).  A beautiful word introduced by the Qur'an in reference to those who disbelieve in Allah as one sole God. An unbeliever is referred to as a Kafir, that is, ‘someone who conceals the truth about Allah.

The root word for concealing/ hiding is (ك ف ر).  Look into the online dictionary. type (kfr) to search meaning of (ك ف ر).
To refer an action done in past we say (كَفَرَ) i.e he disbelieved. Can you iterate the table we learned for past tense in previous chapter ? i.e. (kafara , kafaraa , kafaroo ….. ) ?

Now the one who does the action (فعل ) is doer. In Arabic it is called (فاعِل).  i.e. Just add (alif) to the first root letter.  Therefore we get the word (كافِر ) for disbeliever.    Now what if the doer is female ?  Remember feminine words mostly have ( ة ) at the end. therefore the female disbeliever is called (كافِرة ) (kaafirah).  Another table we have to learn is the doer table.  Its very important . read it like below.

Fa`ailun , fa`ailaani,  fa`ailoon,   ……  fa`aailah , fa`ailataani, fa`ailaatun .

3rd person
2nd person
1st person


The table gives you format of referring to doers. You have to follow the same format for other 3 letter verbs.  The doer table for (كَفَرَ) will be
كافِر , كافِران , كافِرون ..... كافِرة  , كافِرتان , كافِرات
So to refer to all unbelievers together we say (كافِرُونَ).  Just add (alif to first root letter) and (ونَ) to the third root letter.  
Therefore in Surah Al-kafiroon, Allah (swt) refers to all unbelievers -

بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمانِ الرَّحِيم

 قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا الْكَافِرُونَ - (109:1)
Say, "O disbelievers,

We can make simple sentence in present tense using this doer format.  For example :
 The boy is sitting on the chair.  ( الولَدُ جَالَسٌ عَلى الكُرْسِي  )
The literal meaning of the (جَالَسٌ) is that the boy is the one who is sitting. i.e (doer).  But when used with simple sentence like this makes it in present tense form.  But the actual present tense is insha-allah coming up in this chapter.  More examples for sentences using doer format:

  1. The man is standing with them -   ( الرَّجُلُ واقِفٌ  مَعَاهُم  ).
( وقف) means to stand. Can you write the past tense table for the ( وقف)  ?
  1. Is she going to school today - ( أَ هى ذاهِبة اِلى المَدْرَسَة اليَوم )
  2. The part of the ayah which is very commonly used when by Muslims when a person experiences a tragedy in life is  (  إِنَّا لِلّهِ وَإِنَّـا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعونَ  ) translates to "Surely we belong to Allah and to Him shall we return".  Also recited upon hearing news that a person has died. The phrase is also recited in situation that involve risk of any sort.   Notice the doer form in this phrase ( رَاجِعونَ ) is from the root word (رجع). Also you should be able to know grammar of each word in that phrase.

After ( كَفَرَ ) another verb used in Surah Al`kafiroon is ( عبد) . Means he worshipped.  Please recite the past tense table for this verb as we learned in past tense chapter.
عَبَدَ , عَبَدا, عَبَدُوا  .... عَبَدَتْ ,عَبَدْتا ,عَبَدْنَ ...... عَبَدتَ , عَبَدتُما , عَبَدتُم ..... عَبَدتِ , عَبَدتُما , عَبَدتُنّ .... عَبدتُ , عَبَدنَا   

And therefore from the above 2 grammar (doer ‘عَابِدٌ’ + past tense form of عَبَدَ ) we have ayah of surah Al-kafiroon.

بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمانِ الرَّحِيم

وَلَا أَنَا عَابِدٌ مَّا عَبَدتُّمْ  - 109:4
Nor will I be a worshipper of what you worship - 109:4

( مَّا ) here used as “that which”.  

But when used before a past tense at the start of a sentence it negates the past.  
  1. We have created it. - خلقناها  
  2. We have NOT  created it.   -  ما خلقناها
  3. I have read this book -  قَرَأتُ هذا الكتاب
  4. I haven’t NOT read this book -  ما قَرَأتُ هذا الكتاب
  5. How come you don't know this news - كيف ما عَرَفتُم هذا الخَبَر
  6. O Lord , You did NOT create this aimlessly - رَبَّنَا مَا خَلَقْتَ هَٰذَا بَاطِلًا  3:191

Translate below sentences in Arabic:

  1. I didn’t go to school
  2. We didn’t eat this food.
  3. I didn’t drink this milk.
  4. I did not do this, He did it.

Arabic present tense

The other grammer present in Surah Al-kafiroon is the arabic imperfect tense. i.e present tense.    The format table for standard verb is below. Read it this way.
Yaf`alu, Yaf`alani, Yaf`aloona …… Taf`alu, Taf`alani, Taf`alna…… Taf`alu, Taf`alani, Taf`aloona, …… Taf`aleena, Taf`alani,Ta`falna…… Af`alu,Naf`alu.

يَفْعَلُونَ  They do
يَفْعَلانِ   they both do
يَفْعَلُ    he does
يَفْعَلْنَ  They do
تَفْعَلانِ   they both do
تَفْعَلُ    she does

تَفْعَلونَ  You all do
تَفْعَلانِ  You both do
تَفْعَلُ     You do

تَفْعَلْنَ  You all do
تَفْعَلانِ  You both do
تَفْعَليِنَ    you do

نَفْعَلُ  We do
َأفْعَلُ   Il do

Its very important to learn the above table as it gives format for to use for other verbs.  Example to tell “i did”  - we add ‘alif’ before root (فعل)  and damma (  ـُ ) to 3rd letter to make it ( َأفْعَلُ).  So to tell “i worship” it will be ( أَعْبُدُ )
And to tell “you all did” we add ( ت ) before root word ( فعل ) and make sukun on first root letter add ( ونَ ) at the end which becomes ( تَفْعَلونَ ).   Similarly for the root word ( عبد ) it becomes ( تَعْبُدُونَ )

Therefore we have the ayah :

بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمانِ الرَّحِيم

لَا أَعْبُدُ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ - 109:2
I do not worship what you worship. 109:2

The whole imperfect tense table format root (عبد ) will be
يَعبُدُ , يَعبُدان , يَعبُدون ..... تعبُدُ , تعبُدان , يَعبُدْنَ  .....  تعبُدُ , تعبدان , تعبُدونَ , ...... تعبُدِين,  تعبدان, تعبُدْنَ ..... أعبُدُ , نعبُدُ

One thing to notice from the above ayah (109:2) is that we just add ( لَا ) to negate the imperfect tense as compared to adding ( مَا ) in case of perfect tense ( past )

From the doer format we have

بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمانِ الرَّحِيم

وَلَا أَنتُمْ عَابِدُونَ مَا أَعْبُدُ - 109:4

Can you translate above ?  and also the final ayah which we studied from preposition chapter.
لَكُمْ دِينُكُمْ وَلِيَ دِينِ - 109:6

According to Ibn Abbas, the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) said to the people: "Should I tell you the word which will protect you from polytheism?It is that you should recite Qul ya-ayyuhal kafirun when you go to bed."(Abu Ya'la, Tabarani).

The purpose of our life, as Allah (swt) says in Quran:
وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ - 51:56
Translate the above ayah. (hint: it has perfect tense of word [خلق], and imperfect tense of عبد)


Translate the below in Arabic:
  1. I do not study arabic   ( hint :  درس - study )
  2. I do not go to my work by car . ( hint : عمل - work , car - سيارة )
  3. I do not work in office. ( hint:  office - مكتب )
  4. He worship him
  5. He is hitting him
  6. She is hitting me
  7. I have studied it.

Alhamdulillah, we have learned lot of things in this chapter. ex.
  1. Arabic Doer format
  2. Arabic present tense
  3. Negation of past tense
  4. Negation of present tense.

Insha-allah we will continue our topic on Arabic present tense practice.  

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