Friday, 5 June 2015

Arabic Idafa - possessive format

                                                                بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمانِ الرَّحِيم

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على نبينا محمد وآله وصحبه

الدرس السادس عشر

لا إله إلا الله محمد  رَسُولُ اللّهِ

السلام عليكم ورَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وبَركاتُه ,  I am sure you should know the meaning of above. And every muslim must say  “اشْهَدُ اَنْ  لا إله إلا الله محمد  رَسُولُ اللّهِ” .  meaning i bear witness that, there is no God but Allah (swt) and Muhammad ﷺ is messenger of Allah.  Are you able to spot the verb that sentence ? “شهد” .   Is that in present tense / past tense ? What’s the past tense equivalent of that ?

Who is Muhammad ﷺ  ?
        رَسُولُ اللّهِ
If you notice there are 2 nouns in this. [ رَسُولٌ -  messenger ] & [ اللّهُ - Allah ].  But joining them makes it idafa format as in english "The... of the....." possessive format also called (owner - owned).

The format of idafa is always [إسْمُ  إسْمِ]   or [إسْمُ  إسْمٍ].
رَسُولُ اللّهِ     -  Messenger of Allah
بابُ الْبيتِ     - the door of the house
كتابُ ابنِهِ      - the book of his son
كتابُ محمّدٍ  - the book of Muhammad

The mudaf - (owner) takes neither the definite nor the indefinite.  These 2 are wrong .
كِتابٌ بِلالٍ
الكِتابُ بلالٍ

Asking questions   whose is it / whose is he/she ?”

example 1:  whose book is this ?  لِمن هذا الكِتابُ ؟
Bilal’s book / (book of bilal)   :  كِتابُ بلِالٍ

example 2:  whose son is he ?  إبْنُ مَنْ هُو؟
He is umar’s son. هو إبْنُ عمرِ

Exercise :   

Remember the family tree exercise we did in chapter 2.
Ahmed : father                 fatima : mother
umar     : son                   hajira    :  daughter
You know the relationship of each one to each other. complete the following as given in example.

Q. Whose one is he ?  إبْنُ مَنْ هُو؟
A. Umar, he is Ahmed’s son.  عُمر،هو إبن أحمدِ
Q. Whose daughter is she ? ………………..
A. ……………………… , حاجرة
Q. زوجٌ  مَن هو؟
A. Ahmed ………….
Q. whose sister is she ?
A. ……………………… , حاجرة
Q. whose wife is she ?
A.……………………… فاطمة
Q. And umar ?
A. Umar, he is Hajira’s brother

Exercise : Please try to translate these examples from quran for Idafa:
  1. فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ
  2. بَنَاتُ الْأَخِ وَبَنَاتُ الْأُخْتِ
  3. أَرْضُ اللَّهِ وَاسِعَةً
  4. فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ
  5. آيَاتُ الرَّحْمَٰنِ

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