Tuesday, 16 June 2015

Arabic relative pronouns and adjectives practice

بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمانِ الرَّحِيم

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على نبينا محمد وآله وصحبه

الدرس السابع عشر

السلام عليكم ورَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وبَركاتُه, In previous chapter you studied how to make Idafa.  Below are some sentences with Idafa with adjectives. Try to identify Idafa and adjectives from below, also try to put kasra, dhamma, fataha to the words that don’t have them.

اليومُ العيدِ عُطلَة
festival day is holiday
قلمُ الرِصَاصِ رخِيص
the pencil is cheap
فضلُ اللهِ كبيرة جدا
Grace of Allah is very big
فصل الشتاء بارد
Winter season is cold
العطلةُ الصيفية طويلة
summer holidays are long
عطلة الشتاء قصيرة
winter holidays are short
دروسُ الكتابِ مفيدة
lessons of the book are useful
أثمارُ حديقةِ كثيرة
Fruits of garden are many
حديقة مدينة جميلة
Garden of city is beautiful
ولدُ الرجلِ الصالحُ
The righteous son of man
ولدُ الرجلِ الصالحِ
The son of righteous man
شعرُ البنتِ الجميلةِ
The hair of beautiful girl
شعرُ البنتِ الجميلةُ
The beautiful hair of girl.

Notice the last 4 sentences above. The word order is very same but just the usage of kasra makes the whole meaning different.

Relative pronouns:
Yet another conjugation table to memorize. But widely used in Quran.  Please memorize it in this way.    Al-Ladhī, Al-ladhāni,  Al-ladhīna ……. Al-Latī, Al-latāni, Al-Lā’ī

الَّذِينَ    Those all/Who
اللَّذَانِ    Those two/Who
الَّذِي   - /Which/ Who/That
اللائِي   Those all/Who
اللَّتَانِ   Those two/Who
الَّتِي    - Which/ Who/That
Let’s take some examples of the Relative Pronouns:

هَـٰذَا الْبَابٌ الَّذِي أَمَامَ الْمَسْجِدِ.
This is the door which is in front of the mosque
هَـٰذَا الْقِطٌّ الَّذِي جَلَسَ.
That is the cat that has sat
أُولَئِكَ الإِخْوَةُ الَّذِينَ ذَهَبُوا إِلَى الْجَامِعَةِ.
Those are the brothers who went to the University
أُؤلَئِكَ عُلَمَاءُ
Those are scholars
هَؤُلاءِ مُمَرِّضَاتٌ.
These are nurses
أَهَٰذَا الَّذِي بَعَثَ اللَّهُ رَسُولًا
Is this the one whom Allah has sent as a messenger?  (25:41)
نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ
My covenant [upon you] that I will fulfill your covenant [from Me], .. (2:41)
وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَسْتَ مُرْسَلًا
And those who have disbelieved say, "You are not a messenger."... (13:43)

You can usually make an adjective feminine by adding (ة).  Example : السرير جديد  - the bed is new.  الحقيبة جديدة  - the bag is new. ( note: the adjective becomes feminine when we subject is feminine).
Adjectives describing basic color are the main exception to this and have their own feminine form.  Study the colors below and their feminine form.


So you use right form for right subject. masculine adjective color for masculine subject and feminine for feminine subject. example : سيارة زرقاء  - blue car. حصان أبيض - white horse.  

Asking questionswhich” :  
Which bag is red :  أيّ حقيبةٍ حمراء ؟
which bird is black: أيّ الطائرٍ اسود ؟

(Note:  please notice above the subject is changed to kasra (ــٍ) when used with أيّ

Asking questionsIs every ?
Is everything cheap ?   : أ كُلُّ شيءٍ رَخِيصٌ ؟
No everything is not cheap : لا، كُلُّ شيءٍ ليست بِرخِيصة

Practice drill:

If we want to learn any language, then we need to practice more and do some drill exercise like below.   From whatever we learnt till now, If you know 3 words (1 noun and 2 adjectives),  you can make more than 7 sentences out of it.  example.

Green - أخضر
Fast - سرعة
car - سيارة

Which car is fast
أيّ  السيارةٍ سريعة
The green car is fast
السيارة خضراء سريعة
The teacher’s green car is fast
سيارةُ المُعلّمِ الخضراء سريعة
Fast green car
سيارة خضراء سريعة
Is every car fast ?
أ كل سيارةٍ بسرعة
No, every car is not fast
لا، كل سيارة ليست بسريعة
The car which is green is fast
السيارة التي خضراء هي سريعة

2) Fill the empty items below as given in above example.  

smart - ذَكِيٌّ
good - جَيِّدٌ
student - طالِبٌ

Which student is good ?

الطالب الذكي جيد
The student of the school is good and smart

The student who is smart is good

الطالب الذكي و الجيد
Is every student smart

لا، كل طالب ليست بذكية

3) Translate below into arabic

Big - كَبِيرٌ
Heavy - ثَقِيلٌ
Bag - حقيبة

Which bag is heavy ?

The big bag is heavy

The student’s bag is heavy

The which is big is heavy

Is every bag heavy ?

No, every bag is not heavy

4) Try to translate this :
  1. which bird is black
  2. crow is black
  3. the bird which is black is crow
  4. Is every bird black ?
  5. No, every bird is not black.
  6. ……
  7. Which book is useful
  8. book of Allah is useful
  9. Also , it is easy and not tough.
  10. It is an easy and useful book.

Note that to answer the above translations you must study the adjectives chapter thoroughly.   
This chapter was mostly about building vocabulary and not much about grammar.
Insha-allah we will continue vocabulary building lessons before we go into more grammar lessons. 

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