Monday, 6 April 2015

Arabic verbs practice

                                                                 بِسمِ اللهِ الرَّحمانِ الرَّحِيم

الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على نبينا محمد وآله وصحبه

الدرس الثالث عشر

السلام عليكم ورَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وبَركاتُه ,  insha-allah lets continue with some exercises on verbs.

Exercise :   Study and understand arabic grammar we studied in previous chapters.

خَلَقَهُ الله
مَن خَلَقَ العَالَمَ ؟
خَلَقَهُم الله
مَن خَلَقَ النّاسَ ؟
خَلَقَها الله
مَن خَلَقَ الجَنّةَ ؟  
يَخْلُقُها الله
مَن خَلَقَ الاَزْهَار ؟
خَلَقَها الله
مَن خَلَقَ السَّمَاءَ ؟
خَلَقَنىِ الله
مَن خَلَقَكَ ؟
يَرْزُقُنِى رَبّىِ
مَن يَرْزُقُكَ ؟
يَرْزُقُنِا رَبُّنا
مَن يَرْزُقُكم مِنْ الطيّباتِ  ؟
نعم نَعبُدُ إلهاً واحِداً
أَ تَعْبُدُونَ إلهاً واحِداً ؟
لا : ما خَلَقُوهُ
أَ خَلَقَ الناس شيء ؟
لا يخلُقونَ شيء
أَ يخلُقونَ شيء ؟
نعم اَعْرِفُهُ
أَ تَعرِفُ اِلهَكَ ؟
لا: ما خلُقناها
أَ يخلُقتم الارض ؟
بل الله خالِقُ كُُلِّ  شيءٍ
و هُوَ على كُُلِّ  شيءٍ   قديرٌ

There are lot of things to learn from this exercise.  And most of it we have already learned from previous chapters.   Just verify what all you have recalled.  

The verb ( خَلَقَ ) means to create. And its a beautiful verb which can be attributed only to Allah (swt).  Each sentence is trying to assert that everything is created by Allah (swt). And nothing got created by itself or we have created anything.  The first questions that is asked is “Who created the world”.  The answer is “خَلَقَهُ الله” .   Notice that ( خَلَقَهُ ) has verb + pronoun suffix from this chapter.  The present form of ( خَلَقَ ) means ( يَخْلُقُ ).
From now on whenever we learn any verb we should know its present tense and past tense both. (  خَلَقَ -   يَخْلُقُ )

Below are meanings of words that are underlined in the exercise.

  1. زهر  <= flower    الاَزْهَار=> flowers
  2. السَّمَاءَ => sky      الارض => earth  (اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ  - 7:54)
  3. Now the way to decode the word (يَرْزُقُكَ ) is that since its has the letter ( يَ ) in starting we can guess its present tense of the verb. And since it does not have ( انِ  or ون ) at the end its is 3rd person masculine singular.  It is ending with ( ك ) its a pronoun suffix. so we trim the verb form and suffix to get ( رزق ). Now check the meaning of this in dictionary you will find this.

  1. You should know the meaning of word ( تَعْبُدُونَ ) ? If not try to do the same exercise as above to find its meaning.   Try the same for ( تَعرِفُ ).
  1. The verb ( تَعرِفُ ) is from   ( عرَف  - يَعْرِفُ).  Ever wondered why its ( يَعْرِفُ ) rather than ( يَعْرُفُ ) like we pronounce for (يَخْلُقُ ).   Every verb belongs to a category of pronunciation based on its second radical in present form.

    (ن) سَجَدَ -  يَسْجُدُ  => to prostrate
(ف)  رَكَعَ -   يَرْكَعُ   => to bow down
(ن)  عَبَدَ يَعْبُدُ =>  to worship
Notice that in the above examples the vowels ( ـَ ـُ ـِ ) are different for different verbs, their second radical. Based on this the verbs are classified into 6 categories.  This is the reason why we should learn both present tense and past tense together. else we will make a spelling mistake.  Notice from the dictionary for the verb  ( رزق) in above example (U) is written after its word (razaqa). this means we have to use (  ـُ ) for second radical in its present form. i.e ( يَرْزُق)
The reason we have written (ن) or (ف) before the verbs is to help us remember the categories of verb classification. You can find these in some dictionaries too instead of (a, i , u)

فَتَحَ  - يَفْتَحُ
to open
ـَ  a
ضَرَبَ  - يَضْرِبُ
to beat
ـِ  i
نَصَرَ -  يَنْصُرُ
to help
ـُ  u
سَمِعَ -  يَسْمَعُ
to listen
ـَ  a
حَسِبَ -  يَحْسِبُ
to reckon
ـِ  i
كَرُمَ -  يَكْرُمُ  
to be noble
ـُ   u

Some examples that fall into these categories.

ذَهَبَ -  يَذْهَبُ
to go
فَعَلَ -  يَفْعَلُ
to do
قَرأ   - يَقْرَاُ
to read
كَتَبَ -  يَكْتُبُ
to write
شَكَرَ -  يَشْكُرُ
to thank
دَخَلَ -  يَدْخُلُ
to enter
جَلَسَ -  يَجْلِسُ
to sit
رَجَعَ  - يَرجِعُ
to return
غَفَرَ -   يَغْفِرُ
to forgive
لَعِبَ -  يَلْعَبُ
to play
عَلِمَ    -  يَعْلَمُ
to know
قَرُبَ -  يَقْرُبُ
to come near

Exercise :
Try to make the table of all the verbs we have learnt above in past tense and present tense.
Future tense ?  Easy.
To form future tense in Arabic the prefix (سـ) "sa" is added to the present tense verb, or (سوف) "sawfa".
For example consider the sentence: I eat apples > "آكلُ تفاحاً" "Akulu tuffahan"
To express the future we have two ways: I will eat apples > "سـآكلُ تفاحاً" "Saakulu tuffahan" or: I will eat apples > "سوف آكلُ تفاحاً" "Sawfa akulu tuffahan".
Quran example:
كَلَّا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ  102:3  (No! You are going to know.)
ثُمَّ كَلَّا سَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ  102:4 (Then no! You are going to know. )

Alhamdulillah, By now we are have covered lot of the basic concepts of arabic.  I can say that we have covered half of the course. Insha-allah from next chapters we shall try to delve into intricate details of arabic and some advanced topics.

For you to be good at understanding quran, you must build your vocabulary.  Its all your hard work that will give you fruitful result in Arabic study insha-allah.   Next you have to do the following to build your vocabulary in quran.  
  1. Go back and iterate all the important points from all the chapters learned.
  2. Memorise all the verbs in 80 percent quran words book. Link here.
  3. Practice whatever verbs you have learned from this site. [].
  4. Practice quran examples from this site. [].

Exercise :  Read and understand.

لُغَةُ القُرْآنِ
السَّلامُ عَلَيْكُمْ ورحمةُ اللَّهِ وبَركَاتُهُ
وَعَليْكُمُ السَّلامُ ورحمةُ اللَّهِ وبَركَاتُهُ
أَيْنَ تَدْرُسُ يا صَلاحُ؟
أَدْرُسُ في شُعْبَةِ اللُّغَةِ العَرَبِيَّةِ
لماذا تَدْرُسُ اللُّغَةَ العَرَبِيَّةَ؟
أَدْرُسُ اللُّغَةَ العَرَبِيَّةَ لأَفْهَمَ لُغَةَ القُرْآنِ الكَريمِ وَالحَدِيثِ الشَّريفِ
أَجَلْ، إِنَّ اللُّغَةَ اْلعَرَبِيَّةَ لُغَةُ اْلعُلومِ الإِسْلامِيَّةِ، وَهِيَ اليَوْمَ لُغَة عالَمِيَّة
أَنا أُحِبُّ اللُّغَةَ العَرَبِيَّةَ
وَفَّقَكَ اللَّهُ

Exercise : Read and understand this beautiful hadith.

عَنْ أَنَسٍ رَضِي اللّه عَنْهُ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قال:   " يَتْبَعُ الميِّتَ ثَلاثَةٌ : أهْلُهُ ومَالُهُ وعَمَلُهُ. فَيَرْجِعُ اثْنَانِ، ويَبْقَى وَاحِدٌ : يَرْجِعُ أَهْلُهُ ومَالُهُ، ويَبْقَى عَمَلُهُ ". (متفق عليه).

Explanation of some words:
to follow
تَبِعَ  -  يَتْبَعُ
dead opposite of (الحَيِّ) living.
relatives. syn. (الأقَارِبُ)
to stay. (i.e not return )
بَقِيَ  - يَبْقَى

Alhamdulillah, this is the end of part 1 of Arabic course. Insha-allah we shall start part-2 with what was left in part-1 and some advanced grammar in arabic to understand Quran.

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